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The University of Liverpool is one of the top UK universities, member of the prestigious Russell Group of 24 leading UK universities.

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The Worlds of Journalism Study is a cross-national collaborative project assessing the state of journalism in the world through representative surveys with journalists.

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UNESCO is the lead UN Agency for promoting freedom of expression and safety of journalists as part of its mandate to “promote the free flow of ideas by word and image”.

Simona Veleva

PhD, Adjunct. Assist. Professor at American University in Bulgaria

legal safeguards of protection of journalists legal protection of whistle-blowers protection of journalistic sources

I research the legal safeguards of journalists and whistle-blowers with a focus on protection of journalistic sources on comparative legal basis. The research explores the Whistle-blower's directive, the new European Media Freedom Act and other relevant European and international legal instruments. The research includes key case-studies of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice.

Definition of journalists' safety

Journalists' safety can be defined from a legal point of view as the protection of journalists and their work from any form of legal harassment, prosecution, or imprisonment, solely for carrying out their journalistic duties. This includes protecting their freedom of expression, right to gather and disseminate information, and the right to access sources without fear of retaliation. In many countries, journalists are protected by laws and regulations that safeguard their rights and ensure their safety. Additionally, international human rights law, such as ICCPR and the UDHR, recognize the fundamental importance of freedom of expression and the press. To ensure journalists' safety from a legal point of view, it is essential to have strong legal protections in place, including laws that safeguard freedom of the press, access to information, and protection of sources. Additionally, governments must ensure that their legal measures do not unduly restrict journalists' activities or infringe on their fundamental rights, such as freedom of expression and the press. Finally, it is crucial to hold accountable those who violate the rights of journalists and to provide remedies for journalists who are harmed or threatened as a result of their work.
Research focuses:
Methods used in research:
Qualitative content analysis, Quantitative content analysis, comparative legal analysis
Countries of research focus:
Bulgaria, Eastern Europe, comparative research of different countries based on the practice of the ECtHR and the ECJ

Areas interested in collaborating with NGOs


Areas interested in collaborating with other researchers

legal research
Simona Veleva

Simona Veleva