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The University of Liverpool is one of the top UK universities, member of the prestigious Russell Group of 24 leading UK universities.

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The Worlds of Journalism Study is a cross-national collaborative project assessing the state of journalism in the world through representative surveys with journalists.

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UNESCO is the lead UN Agency for promoting freedom of expression and safety of journalists as part of its mandate to “promote the free flow of ideas by word and image”.

Nina Springer

Professor at University of Münster , Germany

incivility hate speech author abuse power stress coping

I examine journalistic safety primarily in terms of: (1) psychological integrity: any communicative violence directed at journalists (e.g., hate speech, incivility, or author abuse); and (2) the financial security of the profession. This includes how precarious working conditions are perceived by journalists and how journalists cope with these conditions. My research is both theoretical and empirical. I use political science and sociological approaches (e.g., dimensions of power) to understand threats to journalists' safety, and social psychological concepts (e.g., stress and coping theory) to analyze journalists' resources for building resilience.

Definition of journalists' safety

The absence of any form of harm—whether immediate or delayed—to journalists or their/the media organization's property during or in response to the performance of their work.

Future plans for research on journalists' safety

Creating (educational) resources (1) to inform about other resources that support mitigation, and (2) to inform and mobilize civil society as a potential support structure.
Research focuses:
Psychological, Digital, Financial
Methods used in research:
Surveys, Interviews
Countries of research focus:

Areas interested in collaborating with NGOs

Creation of educational resources

Areas interested in collaborating with other researchers

Hate speech, author abuse, educational resources for mitigation
Nina Springer

Nina Springer

Münster, Germany

Bispinghof 9-14, 48143